Non-woven wallpaper has been a popular product on the wallpaper market since the 1990s. The compacted mixture of cellulose and polyester fibers provides very good dimensional stability and is highly resistant to mold and mildew growth.
Blends of cellulose and polyester fibers
Blends of cellulose and polyester fibers, i.e. natural and synthetic fibers, are called "nonwoven materials". This revolutionary wallpaper material was introduced to the market in the early 1990s. Pulp or cellulose is obtained from chemically treated plant fibers. Polyester is a synthetic fiber that is very important in the textile industry.
Dimensional stability due to compaction
In the production of nonwoven wallpapers, natural and synthetic fibers are compacted together with a binder, resulting in very good dimensional stability. The two types of fibers are fused together to form a tear-resistant, stable unit that is still breathable. The compaction process also ensures that individual lengths or strips of wallpaper do not swell with moisture from the paste and that the lengths (or strips) of wallpaper do not shrink as they dry.
High resistance to mold growth
The combination of cellulose and synthetic textile fibers is moisture resistant and provides excellent protection against mold and mildew. This fact was one of the main reasons for the development of innovative non-woven wallpapers at the time. Thanks to this property, moisture is not trapped between the paper and the wall (which can lead to mold). Instead, it can circulate freely.
Nonwoven wallpaper models fit easily, especially if soaking time is avoided. In addition, nonwoven wallpaper is breathable, highly durable, low flammability, easy to clean and remove, and light resistant.
No soaking time required
Nonwoven wallpaper completely eliminates many of the steps required for paper-based models. Bracket tables are not always required. These wallpaper types completely avoid the need to paste individual lengths of wallpaper and observe soaking times. The adhesive is applied directly to the wall. Thus, even for beginners, non-woven wallpapers are easy to use and uncomplicated.
Nonwoven wallpapers are breathable and airy and can therefore also be used in humid areas and wet rooms. These properties prevent mold and mildew and keep the indoor climate at a healthy level.
The high quality resulting from the basic materials and the compaction process make nonwoven wallpapers very hard-wearing and tear-resistant. Small cracks can be covered without repair or filling work (saving time and materials!) . The non-woven structure also acts as a fabric reinforcement to prevent cracking.
In residential, commercial and public spaces, fire resistance is essential. The better the fire resistance of the wallcovering, the better the fire protection. Nonwoven wallpapers are usually flame resistant ("low flammability"). The special surface treatment significantly delays the ignition of the flame. Nonwoven wallpapers are therefore also very suitable for buildings with public access.
Easy to clean
Nonwoven wallpaper has a washable surface that can be easily cleaned if certain types of stains appear. Dirt and some water-soluble stains can be carefully removed with a cloth and warm soapy water. On the other hand, oils, fats and stains containing solvents cannot be removed from the washable surface.
Easy to remove
When removing non-woven wallpaper types, they do not require any preparation, such as soaking or perforating with a spiked roller. Instead, full lengths can be removed in a dry state. There is usually no residue left on the substrate, so new wallpaper can be applied directly.
Another advantage that should not be underestimated is the good lightfastness of nonwoven wallpapers. This means that these models retain their color, i.e. the color does not fade. This also makes these wallpapers more versatile, as direct, permanent sunlight has no effect on the visual effect.
Nonwoven wallpapers are made up of several components. In addition to cellulose and synthetic fibers, they also contain acrylic polymers, fillers and sometimes preservatives and fungicides.
With a cellulose content of about 40-85%, cellulose is the largest component of nonwoven wallpaper. The raw material for cellulose is industrial or plantation wood, chopped and chemically broken down. In terms of quality, the main difference is between coniferous and broadleaf wood pulp. Bamboo and straw are sometimes used as raw materials.
Synthetic (man-made) fibers make up about 15-30% of the non-woven wallpaper material. Polyester, polyamide and polyacrylic are some common synthetic fibers, with polyester being the most commonly used material. Synthetic fibers are produced from coal, crude oil or natural gas through a special spinning process.
Acrylic polymers account for between 0% and 30% of nonwoven wallpapers. These synthetic resins are used as binders for compacting cellulose and textile fibers. Acrylic polymers are known for their liquid-absorbing properties, making nonwoven wallpapers suitable for use in humid rooms.
Fillers add volume, making the nonwoven wallpaper slightly heavier and giving it extra stability. The foam provides greater thickness, depending on the type, and also gives the wallpaper a tactile structure.
Nonwoven wallpapers may contain preservatives (but they do not necessarily have to). Usually, these substances are used to preserve certain colors, finishes and coatings and to protect them from microorganisms.
Fungicides are antifungal agents that reliably kill fungi or their spores. They can be obtained on a chemical or biological basis. For nonwoven wallpapers, the purpose of fungicides is to protect against mold and bacteria. These agents are usually integrated in dyes and coatings.
The grammage and thickness of the material, the type of surface, cellulose from sustainable forestry and water-based printing inks are the main factors that ensure health-conscious quality.
Grammage and thickness of the material
Properties such as processing quality, living comfort, acoustic and thermal insulation or visual effect depend to a large extent on the grammage and material thickness of any nonwoven wallpaper. The surface weight (g/m 2 ) is the decisive factor when selecting a wallpaper for a specific purpose.
Smooth or structured surfaces
Surface types are primarily of aesthetic importance and are therefore influenced by personal taste. Delicate embossed structures create a high-quality visual effect. Smooth surfaces look sophisticated and are easier to paint. They require less paint and fewer brush strokes to achieve excellent results than structured surfaces.
Cellulose from sustainable forestry
The cellulose used for nonwoven wallpapers is obtained from wood. Wood is an important material, and its environmental protection and resource conservation are essential to ensure that this important raw material will remain available in the future. Sustainable forestry (FSC certification) refers to forests and plantations that are managed according to strict ecological and social principles. For example, only wood that can grow back can be taken.
Water-based inks for patterned wallpapers
Water-based dyes protect the environment and people's health. These light-resistant colors contain almost 50% water. Binders and colored pigments make up 20% each, organic solvents 5% and other reagents about 5%. Water-based dyes are increasingly used for patterned wallpapers due to their positive effects on people and the environment.
Today, the use of substances that are harmful to health has been largely avoided or significantly reduced in wallpaper production. Harmful substances such as phthalate softeners, organohalogen compounds, dibutyltin and formaldehyde are rarely used.
Phthalate plasticizer diisononyl phthalate (DINP)
Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a mixture of organic compounds belonging to the phthalate group and is also used as a plasticizer for vinyl wallpaper. Phthalates are known for their harmful effects, such as those on the liver, kidneys and hormonal system. Responsible manufacturers now rely on phthalate-free wallpapers.
Organohalogen compounds are compounds in which bromine, iodine, fluorine and chlorine are combined with hydrocarbons that act as solvents. They can enter nonwoven wallpaper via dyes, to name just one example. They accumulate in the environment and are difficult to break down. Unfortunately, they are known to trigger allergies and some may cause cancer.
Dibutyltin (DBT) is an organotin compound with two butyl groups. small amounts of these toxic chemicals may be contained in PVC, the vinyl coating used for wallpaper with a nonwoven carrier layer. Possible harmful effects on humans include skin irritation, immune system irritation, and dizziness.
Formaldehyde is a gaseous compound that has a pungent, acidic odor at low concentrations. The substance is the basis for other compounds used in the production of paints, varnishes or adhesives. Formaldehyde is naturally present in wood (cellulose production). However, the amounts measured in non-woven wallpaper are well below the threshold.
TJS nonwoven facing material provides a wide variety of options for direct printing and is used in screen printing, gravure, flexo, surface printing, and embossing processes.It offers superb printability, color performance, high stability, and textile-like touch for wallcovering art expression.TJS Non-woven paper material is made of high-purity nature cellulose and synthetic fibers, eco-friendly for wallpaper facing, backing, and wall liners.Compared to paper, non-woven paper is more durable. And Its features give it more advantages:- Better tear resistance allows the wallpaper to be easier to install and remove.- Good breathability keeps it from getting moldy.- Superior printability makes it has excellent color performance in printing.- Dimensional stability allows the paper to remain dimensionally stable when wet.View More
Technically speaking, all layers of non-woven wallpaper are made up of cellulose and textile fibers. The differences between vinyl and non-woven wallpaper are the carrier material, moisture absorption capacity, cleaning properties and PVC content.
Nonwoven wallpaper as carrier material
If the carrier layer is made of a non-woven material and coated with vinyl, it is often referred to as vinyl wallpaper, although it is also non-woven wallpaper in the broader sense. In the narrower sense, vinyl is only the surface coating and can also be applied to a paper-based carrier.
Waterproof and Washable
Due to its synthetic surface, vinyl wallpaper is water resistant. In contrast to pure non-woven wallpapers, vinyl wallpapers do not absorb any moisture. These models can be cleaned very thoroughly and can usually be scrubbed. Nonwoven wallpapers can only be washed to a certain extent.
Non-woven wallpapers do not contain PVC
Pure nonwoven wallpaper models do not contain PVC. vinyl, on the other hand, consists of polyvinyl chloride, which acts as a coating to form a sealed wallpaper surface that does not allow air or moisture to pass through. Nonwoven materials without vinyl coating are breathable and vapor permeable, i.e. the walls are not sealed and there is hardly any risk of mold.
Nonwoven wallpaper is easy to apply and easy to remove again at a later date. After preparing the surface, the wallpaper paste is applied directly to the wall, then dry strips of wallpaper are laid on top of the paste and pressed on.
Prepare the surface
The surface must be smooth, even, dry, clean and bonded, and must be prepared with proper thoroughness. With light colored non-woven wallpaper substrates, the wall surface can be slightly visible and should therefore be treated with a tinted primer first.
Wall-pasting technique for wallpaper
Nonwoven wallpaper is applied directly to the wall on which it is pasted (wall-paste technique). In contrast to paper wallpaper, no pasting tape or soaking time is required. This is because nonwoven wallpaper neither swells when in contact with the paste nor shrinks again when it dries. It is absolutely dimensionally stable.
Pasting application with short pile rollers
Apply the paste evenly to the wall or ceiling, one strip at a time, with a short pile paste roller strip. An amount of paste slightly wider than the wallpaper strip should be used to ensure that the edges stay in place. In tricky corners and edges, a narrow paintbrush can be used.
Press the dry strips onto the damp adhesive
Gently press each pre-cut strip of dry wallpaper onto the damp adhesive, positioning it carefully and unfolding it downward. The first strip is aligned along the plumb line that should be drawn in advance. Then use a wallpaper brush to move any air bubbles from the middle of the wallpaper strip to the sides. The wallpaper roller and seam roller help to press on the wallpaper and seams.
Only special paste for non-woven wallpaper should be used. It is available in powder form or in premixed form. The amount depends on the size of the walls. In damp rooms, add dispersion paste for better adhesion.
Paste for non-woven wallpapers
The wallpaper paste for nonwoven models is clearly marked. It has a slightly viscous consistency and a low splash quality. This special paste has a high initial adhesion so that the drying length is immediately maintained, but can still be moved for a period of time for possible corrections.
Powdered or mixed paste
Pastes for nonwoven wallpapers are mostly supplied in powder form for self-mixing. It is important to observe the correct mixing ratio of powder and water as indicated on the packaging. The instructions also contain information about the waiting time (to allow the paste to develop). Pre-mixed pastes for non-woven wallpapers are available in cans or buckets and can be used directly from the container.
Pasting volume: depending on the size of the wall
The amount of paste required depends on the size of the wall. For example, approximately 100 g of powder paste is required. 10 m 2 of wall. Even before purchasing the paste, the area to be wallpapered should be known in m 2 (wall or ceiling) in order to purchase the correct amount of powder packets or ready-to-use paste pails.
Adding dispersion adhesives
Dispersion adhesives are ready-to-use adhesives based on synthetic resins/plastics with low water content. They cure when water evaporates and provide high bond strength, making them more difficult to remove. Adding up to 20% dispersion adhesive to a non-woven wallpaper adhesive is useful in wet rooms so that the wallpaper stays safely on the wall.
In general, non-woven wallpaper can always be painted, although smooth or even model is a better option. After the non-woven wallpaper has dried for about 12 to 24 hours, the paint can be evenly applied to it.
Smooth nonwoven wallpaper for painting
Smooth nonwoven wallpapers without structure or embossing are best suited for quick and even application of paint. The amount of paint required is also significantly lower than for structured nonwoven wallpapers, which sometimes have to be painted several times to achieve the desired finish.
Nonwoven wallpapers can be painted after the required drying time
The wallpaper paste used to apply nonwoven wallpaper should be left to dry completely before you start painting the wall. Depending on the season and room temperature, the drying process can take from 12 to 24 hours.
Even application of paint
The paint should be applied evenly from top to bottom. This process produces a pleasing, even color. Depending on the type and quality of paint, walls may require a second coat to fully cover. Waiting about 24 hours will prevent the paint from staining and smudging.
Non-woven wallpaper has a life expectancy of between 10 and 15 years, beyond which the room usually needs to be redecorated. Since it is not a hazardous waste, environmentally friendly disposal is easy and even offers a recycling effect.
Life expectancy: 10 - 15 years
Under normal to heavy use, non-woven wallpaper can last between 10 and 15 years. Today, the time interval for re-wallpapering or refurbishing is usually much shorter. This is not only for practical or aesthetic reasons, but may also be the result of a desire for change that is apparently not bound to a particular era.
There are no specific recycling options for non-woven wallpapers, as they consist of different components. On the other hand, they are not hazardous waste and can therefore be disposed of in ordinary household waste bins. This applies to unused leftover wallpaper waste as well as old demolition wallpaper. If there is not enough space in the bin, wallpaper can be disposed of in additional garbage bags, which can be purchased for a small fee or disposed of at a local recycling center.
Indirectly, waste non-woven wallpaper is turned into climate-neutral energy through waste incineration. One ton of waste can be used to generate heat equivalent to 250 liters of heating oil. The heat generated by the incineration process heats up the water until steam is produced, which is then pumped into a turbine that powers a heat converter to produce mechanical energy. Electrical energy is generated by a connected generator.
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